|Changing Patterns of Trade and Global Value Chains in Postcrisis Asia|
This Asian Development Bank brief examines how patterns of trade and global value chains (GVCs) in developing Asia have changed since the global financial crisis. The paper reports that export slowdown in the region was caused by a combination of weak import demand for Asian goods in advanced economy markets, structural transformation and reduced import demand in the People’s Republic of China, and possible impact of increasing non-tariff measures. According to this paper, it further states that much of the weak import demand is likely
to be temporary — developing Asia gained a 1.5% increase in exports in 2016, after a 0.8% decline in 2015. Among South Asian economies, India and Sri Lanka are expected to have better export volume growth in 2016.
Author: Ganeshan Wignaraja, Juzhong Zhuang, Mahinthan J. Mariasingham, and Madeline Dumaua-Cabauatan
Download - 1.39 MB
Tags: Global Value Chains, Import, Export, India, Sri Lanka, Non-Tariff Measures, Trade Facilitation
|Accumulating Trade Costs and Competitiveness in Global Value Chains|
This paper examines the implications of trade costs, including applied tariffs, transportation and insurance costs, on competitiveness at industry, national and global levels, and identifies where trade facilitation investment would have the highest social returns from the perspective of global value chains (GVCs). With trade costs amplified along GVCs, profitability of individual business operations are affected by incurred transaction expenses. The authors conclude that direct benefits of trade facilitation will be higher for countries that are not yet well integrated into international trade, but key traders who are at the core of GVCs also stand to gain much.
Author: Antonia Diakantoni, Hubert Escaith, Michael Roberts and Thomas Verbeet
Download - 2.40 MB
Tags: Trade, Tariff, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Global Value Chains
|Trade Facilitation and Global Value Chains: Opportunities for Sustainable Development|
This paper analyzes the relationship between global value chains (GVCs) and trade facilitation, and its contribution to sustainable development outcomes on low-income and least developed countries (LICs and LDCs). A key insight of the paper concludes that it is not fundamentally GVCs that drive the sustainable development implications of improved trade facilitation, but the resulting extension and intensification of economic activity. It underlines the importance of putting in place domestic regulatory infrastructure that considers the appropriate economic, social, and environmental dimensions to ensure that GVCs remain consistent with the global commitment to sustainable development, while expanding economic opportunities of LICs and LDCs.
Author: Ben Shepherd
Download - 1.59 MB
Tags: Trade Facilitation, Trade, Global Value Chains, Sustainability, Sustainable Development, Least Developed Countries, LDC
|SME Competitiveness Outlook: Meeting the Standard for Trade|
Standards and regulations for goods and services are important to international trade and value chains. They ensure consumer protection, determine compatibility, and promote environmental sustainability. This SME Competitiveness Outlook focuses on helping small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) make the most of standards and regulations to increase their competitiveness. Findings include strategies for SME managers on selecting and implementing standards and regulations, and an action plan for policymakers and trade and investment support institutions involved in aiding SMEs compete in markets where standards and regulations matter.
Author: International Trade Centre
Download - 23.8 MB
Tags: Trade, Small and Medium Enterprises, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, WTO, Global Value Chains
|World Trade Report: Levelling the Trading Field for SMEs|
Participation in international trade, once exclusive, can progressively become more inclusive. But while new opportunities are opening up for small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), old barriers to international trade remain. This report highlights national and international policy actions that would enhance the ability of SMEs to participate in world markets more effectively. It says that for open trade and global integration to fully benefit everyone, it is crucial to ensure that all firms—not just large corporations—can succeed in today’s global marketplace.
Author: World Trade Organization
Download - 3.8 MB
Tags: Trade, WTO, Small and Medium Enterprise, Global Value Chains
|Trade Costs and Inclusive Growth: Case Studies Presented by WTO Chair-holders|
These contributions from participants of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Chairs Programme—which supports trade-related activities by academic institutions in developing countries—offer insightful research on opportunities that open up for developing countries when trade costs are reduced. Analyzing the potential impact of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement implementation in various developing regions of the world, this publication offers detailed country-level analysis on benefits of trade facilitation, including export diversification, greater global value chain participation, insertion of SMEs into international trade, the attraction of more foreign direct investments, and better governance.
Author: Robert Teh, Maarten Smeets, Mustapha Sadni Jallab and Fatima Chaudhri, editors
Download - 3.7 MB
Tags: Trade Facilitation, Global Value Chains, Small and medium enterprises, FDI, Governance, WTO
|Regional Infrastructure for Trade Facilitation: Impact on Growth and Poverty Reduction - Policy Summary|
This research aims to provide evidence on the effects of regional infrastructure and associated trade cost reduction on growth and poverty reduction of economic actors, including households and firms, around the border. Data shows that investment in regional integration for trade facilitation (RITF) promotes economic activity, supports activity of informal traders, and facilitates integration into global value chains and international production networks. The report highlights that new hard infrastructure benefits economic actors more when complementary regulations that allow for efficient trade logistic services are also put in place. It recommends that policymakers account for the impact of RITF on reducing constraints to connectivity in their evaluations and policy decisions.
Author: Marie-Agnes Jouanjean and Dirk Willem te Velde
Download - 116 KB
Tags: Trade Facilitation, Global Value Chains, Poverty Reduction
|Trade in Value Added: Concepts, Estimation and Analysis|
This Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade working paper aims to explain the concept of Trade in Value Added (TiVA), which could properly measure exports of an economy. It discusses how TiVA is measured and how it can help in a more comprehensive understanding of trade flows. It also explains global value chains and reviews current initiatives in constructing regional and international input-output tables, and estimates of TiVA involving Asia-Pacific economies.
Author: Marko Javorsek and Ignacio Camacho
Download - 1.1 MB
Tags: Asia-Pacific, Global Value Chains, Trade
|Outward FDI by Indian Manufacturing MNEs: Impacts and Implications |
This Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade Working Paper investigates the home country effects of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) on domestic activity of Indian multinational enterprises (MNEs). The empirical evidence suggests that OFDI by Indian MNEs has a positive impact on export intensity and research and development. In order to derive desired complementary benefits of OFDI by manufacturing firms, policies may be directed to enhance the country’s international supply chain connectivity for greater participation in global value chain and production network.
Author: Khanindra Ch. Das
Download - 709 KB
Tags: India, FDI, Global Value Chains, Trade, Export, Development, Manufacturing, UNESCAP
|Unlocking Bhutan’s Potential: Measuring Potential Output for the Small, Landlocked Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan |
The hydropower sector has driven Bhutan's economic growth in the past two decades with growth rates averaging 7.9%. Yet, the economy has not been invulnerable to market fluctuations and external shocks. This ADB South Asia Working Paper analyzes how Bhutan can create sustainable and inclusive growth, alongside the continuous expansion of its hydropower industry. It examines how certain policies can impact Bhutan's potential growth over 2013–2030. Results show that higher investment in education, health, and efforts to diversify its economic base—including enhancement of new industries with linkages to regional and global value chains—can further drive economic growth and improve the country's living standards.
Author: Sabyasachi Mitra, Sarah Carrington, and Anthony Baluga
Download - 1920 KB
Tags: Bhutan, Energy, Economics, Hydropower, ADB, South Asia, Sustainability, Global Value Chains, Economic Growth
|Industrialization and Global Value Chain Participation: An Examination of Constraints Faced by the Private Sector in Nepal|
This paper examines the constraints behind and beyond Nepal's borders that hinder its full participation in global value chains (GVC). Basing the analysis on recent and relevant publications, key economic data, and interviews with policymakers and stakeholders, the authors explain how weak and uncertain industrial policy has led to de-industrialization. They also looked at the effects of inadequate infrastructure, energy shortage, and inefficient transit. Failures in coordination, shallow regional integration and non-tariff barriers also bar further growth of Nepal's industrial development and GVC participation. The authors recommend necessary domestic reforms for behind-the-border constraints, and subregional partnerships—facilitated through the South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation program—for beyond-the-border challenges.
Author: Yurendra Basnett and Posh Raj Pandey
Download - 902 KB
Tags: Infrastructure, Private Sector, Nepal, Global Value Chains, Industrialization, Infrastructure, Energy, Transport, Regional Integration, SASEC
|World Trade Report 2014 – Trade and Development: Recent Trends and the Role of the WTO|
This annual publication highlights the relationship between trade and development, including changes since the start of the millennium. It identifies four key trends that altered the way trade affects development outcomes – accelerated economic growth in developing countries, expansion of global value chains, increase in agricultural and natural resource prices, and global nature of macroeconomic shocks. This report also explores how these trends have reshaped the role of trade in facilitating development and how recent development gains allow developing countries to adapt and mitigate risks.
Author: World Trade Organization
Download - 7.49 MB
Tags: WTO, Global Value Chains, Trade, Economic Growth, Agriculture, Trade Facilitation, Development, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, South Asia, Sri Lanka
|Asian Development Outlook 2014 Update: Asia in Global Value Chains|
As developing Asia continues along a stable growth path, India maintains a 5.5% growth forecast for 2014 and shows promise of a turnaround. Reforms are envisioned for 2015, including a forecast 0.3% upgrade to 6.3%. Bhutan recorded the largest current account deficit as a percentage of GDP, due to imports used in construction of several large hydropower projects that will expand its energy export capacity to India. Meanwhile, South Asia is expected to perform with greater momentum in 2015, with a growth forecast upgrade to 6.1% from 5.8%. Most of the improvements in the subregion are from India’s deficit and Bangladesh’s current account. Nepal also shows improved outlook for 2015.
Author: Asian Development Bank
Download - 11.4 MB
Tags: South Asia, Global Value Chains, India, Economics, Trade
|The Future of the World Trading System: Asian Perspectives|
According to WTO Director-General Pascal Lamy, the problems facing Asian regionalism are a scaled-down version of the problems facing the world. Thus, solutions that address Asia’s noodle bowl would most likely work at the global level. This concise collection of short chapters is based on longer papers presented at the Geneva Conference on 11-12 March 2013, organized by the Asian Development Bank Institute and Centre for Trade and Economic Integration at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, in collaboration with WTO. The chapters are written by leading Asian and international trade experts on key changes taking place in the world trading system and its policy implications for Asia.
Author: Richard E. Baldwin, Masahiro Kawai, and Ganeshan Wignaraja, eds.
Download - 1.7MB
Tags: Regional Integration, Trade Policy, Trade, Global Value Chains, Global Production Network, Regional Trade, Trade Facilitation, India
|The ASEAN Economic Community: A Work in Progress|
This publication explores the barriers and impediments to the realization of an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), and to what extent its self-imposed deadline of 2015 for achievement of an AEC is more of a milestone of progress than a firm target. It examines whether the AEC is achievable, the obstacles faced in achieving it, and the measures required to help it become a reality.
Author: Asian Development Bank
Download - 4.49MB
Tags: Regional Cooperation, Regional Integration, Trade Policy, ASEAN, Economic Integration, Regional Cooperation, ADB, Regional Integration, Services, Global Value Chains, Non-Tariff Measures, Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement, India, Trade Facilitation
|Aid for Trade: An Investment Benefit Road Map for South Asia|
Aid for Trade (AfT) came to prominence just over a decade ago at the launch of the
World Trade Organization's Doha Round. With its focus on helping least developed
countries and economies escape the poverty trap, it aims to strengthen their
capabilities to meet market demand and to reduce supply-side constraints such as a lack of
Author: Asian Development Bank
Download - 9.2MB
Tags: Trade Policy, Poverty Reduction, Infrastructure, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Trade Facilitation, Transport, Global Value Chains, Exports
|The Transformation of Rice Value Chains in Bangladesh and India: Implications for Food Security|
This paper reports the survey findings that rice value chains are transforming in Bangladesh and India.
Author: Thomas Reardon / Bart Minten / Kevin Z. Chen / Lourdes Adriano
Download - 436KB
Tags: Bangladesh, India, Trade Policy, Agriculture, ADB, Global Value Chains, Food Security, Trade Facilitation
|Returned 17 publications|